Recreation and sport settings (RSS) are ideal for health promotion, however, they often promote unhealthy eating. Choice architecture, a strategy to nudge consumers towards healthier options, has not been comprehensively reviewed in RSS and indicators for setting-based multi-level, multi-component healthy eating interventions in RSS are lacking. This scoping review aimed to generate healthy food environment indicators for RSS by reviewing peer-reviewed and grey literature evidence mapped onto an adapted choice architecture framework. One hundred thirty-two documents were included in a systematic search after screening. Data were extracted and coded, first, according to Canada’s dietary guideline key messages, and were, second, mapped onto a choice architecture framework with eight nudging strategies (profile, portion, pricing, promotion, picks, priming, place and proximity) plus two multi-level factors (policy and people). We collated data to identify overarching guiding principles. We identified numerous indicators related to foods, water, sugary beverages, food marketing and sponsorship. There were four cross-cutting guiding principles: (i) healthy food and beverages are available, (ii) the pricing and placement of food and beverages favours healthy options, (iii) promotional messages related to food and beverages supports healthy eating and (iv) RSS are committed to supporting healthy eating and healthy food environments. The findings can be used to design nested, multipronged healthy food environment interventions. Future research is needed to test and systematically review the effectiveness of healthy eating interventions to identify the most promising indicators for setting-based health promotion in RSS.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.