Consumption of healthy and sustainable diets (HSD) provides opportunities to co-benefit human health and adapt to and mitigate climate change. Despite robust evidence and policy recommendations from authoritative groups to reorientate the food system to favour consumption of HSD there has been limited policy action. This study investigated potential barriers and enablers for successful HSD policies in Australia. A review of HSD policy recommendations and of current Australian policies was undertaken. Results from the reviews informed a Delphi study, which investigated Australian stakeholder opinions on the effectiveness of HSD policy recommendations and barriers and enablers to creating successful HSD policies. Nine participants completed two Delphi iterations. A lack of consensus was reached on the effectiveness of policy recommendations. Consensus was reached on the effect of five barriers and three enablers. Key barriers were: the complex nature of the food system, competing interests of stakeholders, pressure from industry, government silos and lack of political will. Key enablers were: building relationships with key stakeholders across multiple disciplines and sectors, understanding the policy making process and developing a clear and coherent solution. Most of the identified barriers fall under the broad category of lack of political will. Interrelationships between barriers are likely worsening the impact of inadequate political will. There is a need to act on the identified barriers and enablers to secure the HSD policies that are required. Interactions between barriers may present an opportunity to address them simultaneously.

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