A curative-intent approach may improve survival in carefully selected patients with oligometastatic colorectal cancer. Aggressive treatments are most frequently administered to patients with isolated liver metastasis, though they may be judiciously considered for other sites of metastasis. To be considered for curative intent with surgery, patients must have disease that can be definitively treated while leaving a sufficient functional liver remnant. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be used for upfront resectable disease as a test of tumor biology and/or for upfront unresectable disease to increase the likelihood of resectability (so-called ‘conversion’ chemotherapy). While conversion chemotherapy in this setting aims to improve survival, the choice of a regimen remains a complex and highly individualized decision. In this review, we discuss the role of RAS status, primary site, sidedness, and other clinical features that affect chemotherapy treatment selection as well as key factors of patients that guide individualized patient-treatment recommendations for colorectal-cancer patients being considered for definitive treatment with metastasectomy.

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