Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignant tumors of the digestive tract, posing a significant risk to human health. Over the past 10 years, the pathological characteristics and the prognosis of GC have been determined based on the locations of the tumors that were then classified into two types—proximal and distal GC. This review focuses on the differences in epidemiology, etiology, cell source, pathological characteristics, gene expression, molecular markers, manifestations, treatment, prognosis, and prevention between proximal and distal GC to provide guidance and a basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

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