Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide and 30% of patients with CRC experience metastasis. Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) have a 5-year overall survival rate of <10%. V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) and V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten ratsarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations are mostly studied in mCRC, as clinical trials found that first-line chemotherapy with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor agent confers limited efficacy for mCRC. Treatment decisions for early-stage mCRC do not consider BRAF or KRAS mutations, given the dramatically poor prognosis conferred by these mutations in clinical trials. Thus, it is necessary to identify patients with mCRC harboring BRAF or KRAS mutations to formulate rational therapeutic strategies to improve prognosis and survival. BRAF and KRAS mutations occur in ∼10% and ∼44% of patients with mCRC, respectively. Although the survival rate of patients with mCRC has improved in recent years, the response and prognosis of patients with the aforementioned mutations are still poor. There is a substantial unmet need for prospective personalized therapies for patients with BRAF- or KRAS-mutant mCRC. In this review, we focus on BRAF and KRAS mutations to understand the mechanisms underlying resistance and improving the response rate, outcomes, and prognosis of patients with mCRC bearing these mutations and to discuss prospective personalized therapies for BRAF- and KRAS-mutant mCRC.

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