Olfactory dysfunction (OD) is a highly frequent early non-motor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). An important step to potentially use OD for the development of early diagnostic tools of PD is to differentiate PD-related OD from other forms of non-parkinsonian OD (NPOD: postviral, sinunasal, post-traumatic, and idiopathic OD). Measuring non-olfactory chemosensory modalities, especially the trigeminal system, may allow to characterize a PD-specific olfactory profile. We here review the literature on PD-specific chemosensory alteration patterns compared with NPOD. Specifically, we focused on the impact of PD on the trigeminal system and particularly on the interaction between olfactory and trigeminal systems. As this interaction is seemingly affected in a disease-specific manner, we propose a model of interaction between both chemosensory systems that is distinct for PD-related OD and NPOD. These patterns of chemosensory impairment still need to be confirmed in prodromal PD; nevertheless, appropriate chemosensory tests may eventually help to develop diagnostic tools to identify individuals at risks for PD.

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