Motivated by a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we propose a new functional mixed model for scalar on function regression. The model extends the standard scalar on function regression for repeated outcomes by incorporating subject-specific random functional effects. Using functional principal component analysis, the new model can be reformulated as a mixed effects model and thus easily fit. A test is also proposed to assess the existence of the subject-specific random functional effects. We evaluate the performance of the model and test via a simulation study, as well as on data from the motivating fMRI study of thermal pain. The data application indicates significant subject-specific effects of the human brain hemodynamics related to pain and provides insights on how the effects might differ across subjects.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)