This article provides methods of causal inference for competing risks data. The methods are formulated as structural nested mean models of causal effects directly related to the cumulative incidence function or subdistribution hazard, which reflect the survival experience of a subject in the presence of competing risks. The effect measures include causal risk differences, causal risk ratios, causal subdistribution hazard ratios, and causal effects of time-varying exposures. Inference is implemented by g-estimation using pseudo-observations, a technique to handle censoring. The finite-sample performance of the proposed estimators in simulated datasets and application to time-varying exposures in a cohort study of type 2 diabetes are also presented.

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