X-chromosome is often excluded from the so called “whole-genome” association studies due to the differences it exhibits between males and females. One particular analytical challenge is the unknown status of X-inactivation, where one of the two X-chromosome variants in females may be randomly selected to be silenced. In the absence of biological evidence in favor of one specific model, we consider a Bayesian model averaging framework that offers a principled way to account for the inherent model uncertainty, providing model averaging-based posterior density intervals and Bayes factors. We examine the inferential properties of the proposed methods via extensive simulation studies, and we apply the methods to a genetic association study of an intestinal disease occurring in about 20% of cystic fibrosis patients. Compared with the results previously reported assuming the presence of inactivation, we show that the proposed Bayesian methods provide more feature-rich quantities that are useful in practice.

This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model)