In clinical trials, it is common to have multiple clinical outcomes (e.g., coprimary endpoints or a primary and multiple secondary endpoints). It is often desirable to establish efficacy in at least one of multiple clinical outcomes, which leads to a multiplicity problem. In the frequentist paradigm, the most popular methods to correct for multiplicity are typically conservative. Moreover, despite guidance from regulators, it is difficult to determine the sample size of a future study with multiple clinical outcomes. In this article, we introduce a Bayesian methodology for multiple testing that asymptotically guarantees type I error control. Using a seemingly unrelated regression model, correlations between outcomes are specifically modeled, which enables inference on the joint posterior distribution of the treatment effects. Simulation results suggest that the proposed Bayesian approach is more powerful than the method of Holm (1979), which is commonly utilized in practice as a more powerful alternative to the ubiquitous Bonferroni correction. We further develop multivariate probability of success, a Bayesian method to robustly determine sample size in the presence of multiple outcomes.

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