Transdisciplinary research is an emerging new normal for many scientists in applied research fields, including One Health, planetary health, and sustainability. However, simply bringing highly skilled students (and faculty members) together to generate real-world solutions and policy recommendations for complex problems often fails to consistently create the desired results in transdisciplinary settings. Our research goal was to improve understanding and applications of transdisciplinary learning processes within a One Health graduate education program. This qualitative study analyzes 5 years of action research data, identifying four transdisciplinary leadership skills and four conditions required for consistent skill development. Combining Vygotsky's theory of proximal development with identified transdisciplinary skills, we explain why educational scaffolding is needed to enable more successful design and delivery of transdisciplinary learning, particularly in One Health educational programs.

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