Among the greatest hindrances to the acceptance of evolution are religious factors. In this study, we take a more rigorous and detailed approach to the specific effects of religious affiliation and self-reported religiosity on the acceptance of creationist viewpoints and the overall acceptance of evolution. Over 700 religious adults who claimed affiliation with one of four broad religious groups (Southern Baptist, Catholic, Jewish, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints) were surveyed nationwide using a newly validated instrument. Using structural equation modeling and variable association analysis, we demonstrate that, although creationism and evolution acceptance are negatively correlated, the relationships differ with respect to religious affiliation and with respect to religiosity. These data provide compelling evidence that evolution is viewed differently on the basis of both religious affiliation and religiosity, and they lead to important educational implications when approaching religious students on the subject of evolution.

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