Addressing food security in high mountains is a multidimensional conundrum because of complex climate patterns and environmental attributes. These conditions affect water supplies, biodiversity, droughts, and other hazards. The climate change–land degradation nexus, although it is difficult to disentangle, poses formidable challenges. Isolated mountain villages, coupled with poverty, a strained subsistence existence, conflict, and marginal lands make the residents vulnerable to malnutrition, stunting, and food access. Because the arable land is mostly in confined valleys, food production is insufficient. The soils are typically infertile, with little organic matter; on hillslopes, thin soil and rock cover, coupled with short growing seasons, restrict crop production. High-elevation pastures are overgrazed, and the natural hazard impacts on food security are often overlooked. We examine food security through these multifaceted stressors, instead of merely focusing on production and distribution, and present an integrated approach to assess natural and anthropogenic stressors and feedback loops affecting food security linked to planning, mitigation, and coping strategies.

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