Triplet amino acids have successfully been included in feature selection to predict human-HPV protein-protein interactions (PPI). The utility of supervised learning methods is curtailed due to experimental data not being available in sufficient quantities. Improvements in machine learning techniques and features selection will enhance the study of PPI between host and pathogen.


We present a comparison of a neural network model versus SVM for prediction of host-pathogen PPI based on a combination of features including: amino acid quadruplets, pairwise sequence similarity, and human interactome properties. The neural network and SVM were implemented using Python Sklearn library. The neural network model using quadruplet features and other network features outperformance the SVM model. The models are tested against published predictors and then applied to the human-B.anthracis case. Gene ontology term enrichment analysis identifies immunology response and regulation as functions of interacting proteins. For prediction of Human-viral PPI, our model (neural network) is a significant improvement in overall performance compared to a predictor using the triplets feature and achieves a good accuracy in predicting human-B.anthracis PPI.

Availability and implementation

All code can be downloaded from

Supplementary information

Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

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