The investigation of DNA methylation can shed light on the processes underlying human well-being and help determine overall human health. However, insufficient coverage makes it challenging to implement single-stranded DNA methylation sequencing technologies, highlighting the need for an efficient prediction model. Models are required to create an understanding of the underlying biological systems and to project single-cell (methylated) data accurately.


In this study, we developed positional features for predicting CpG sites. Positional characteristics of the sequence are derived using data from CpG regions and the separation between nearby CpG sites. Multiple optimized classifiers and different ensemble learning approaches are evaluated. The OPTUNA framework is used to optimize the algorithms. The CatBoost algorithm followed by the stacking algorithm outperformed existing DNA methylation identifiers.

Availability and implementation

The data and methodologies used in this study are openly accessible to the research community. Researchers can access the positional features and algorithms used for predicting CpG site methylation patterns. To achieve superior performance, we employed the CatBoost algorithm followed by the stacking algorithm, which outperformed existing DNA methylation identifiers. The proposed iCpG-Pos approach utilizes only positional features, resulting in a substantial reduction in computational complexity compared to other known approaches for detecting CpG site methylation patterns. In conclusion, our study introduces a novel approach, iCpG-Pos, for predicting CpG site methylation patterns. By focusing on positional features, our model offers both accuracy and efficiency, making it a promising tool for advancing DNA methylation research and its applications in human health and well-being.

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