Motivation

Survival analysis is an important tool for modeling time-to-event data, e.g. to predict the survival time of patient after a cancer diagnosis or a certain treatment. While deep neural networks work well in standard prediction tasks, it is still unclear how to best utilize these deep models in survival analysis due to the difficulty of modeling right censored data, especially for multi-omics data. Although existing methods have shown the advantage of multi-omics integration in survival prediction, it remains challenging to extract complementary information from different omics and improve the prediction accuracy.

Results

In this work, we propose a novel multi-omics deep survival prediction approach by dually fused graph convolutional network (GCN) named FGCNSurv. Our FGCNSurv is a complete generative model from multi-omics data to survival outcome of patients, including feature fusion by a factorized bilinear model, graph fusion of multiple graphs, higher-level feature extraction by GCN and survival prediction by a Cox proportional hazard model. The factorized bilinear model enables to capture cross-omics features and quantify complex relations from multi-omics data. By fusing single-omics features and the cross-omics features, and simultaneously fusing multiple graphs from different omics, GCN with the generated dually fused graph could capture higher-level features for computing the survival loss in the Cox-PH model. Comprehensive experimental results on real-world datasets with gene expression and microRNA expression data show that the proposed FGCNSurv method outperforms existing survival prediction methods, and imply its ability to extract complementary information for survival prediction from multi-omics data.

Availability and implementation

The codes are freely available at https://github.com/LiminLi-xjtu/FGCNSurv.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.