The registration of serial section electron microscope images is a critical step in reconstructing biological tissue volumes, and it aims to eliminate complex nonlinear deformations from sectioning and replicate the correct neurite structure. However, due to the inherent properties of biological structures and the challenges posed by section preparation of biological tissues, achieving an accurate registration of serial sections remains a significant challenge. Conventional nonlinear registration techniques, which are effective in eliminating nonlinear deformation, can also eliminate the natural morphological variation of neurites across sections. Additionally, accumulation of registration errors alters the neurite structure.


This article proposes a novel method for serial section registration that utilizes an unsupervised optical flow network to measure feature similarity rather than pixel similarity to eliminate nonlinear deformation and achieve pairwise registration between sections. The optical flow network is then employed to estimate and compensate for cumulative registration error, thereby allowing for the reconstruction of the structure of biological tissues. Based on the novel serial section registration method, a serial split technique is proposed for long-serial sections. Experimental results demonstrate that the state-of-the-art method proposed here effectively improves the spatial continuity of serial sections, leading to more accurate registration and improved reconstruction of the structure of biological tissues.

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The source code and data are available at

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