Motivation

Chromothripsis, associated with poor clinical outcomes, is prognostically vital in multiple myeloma. The catastrophic event is reported to be detectable prior to the progression of multiple myeloma. As a result, chromothripsis detection can contribute to risk estimation and early treatment guidelines for multiple myeloma patients. However, manual diagnosis remains the gold standard approach to detect chromothripsis events with the whole-genome sequencing technology to retrieve both copy number variation (CNV) and structural variation data. Meanwhile, CNV data are much easier to obtain than structural variation data. Hence, in order to reduce the reliance on human experts’ efforts and structural variation data extraction, it is necessary to establish a reliable and accurate chromothripsis detection method based on CNV data.

Results

To address those issues, we propose a method to detect chromothripsis solely based on CNV data. With the help of structure learning, the intrinsic relationship-directed acyclic graph of CNV features is inferred to derive a CNV embedding graph (i.e. CNV-DAG). Subsequently, a neural network based on Graph Transformer, local feature extraction, and non-linear feature interaction, is proposed with the embedding graph as the input to distinguish whether the chromothripsis event occurs. Ablation experiments, clustering, and feature importance analysis are also conducted to enable the proposed model to be explained by capturing mechanistic insights.

Availability and implementation

The source code and data are freely available at https://github.com/luvyfdawnYu/CNV_chromothripsis.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.