Many ophthalmic disease biomarkers have been identified through comprehensive multiomics profiling, and hold significant potential in advancing the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of diseases. Meanwhile, the eye itself serves as a natural biomarker for several systemic diseases including neurological, renal, and cardiovascular systems. We aimed to collect and standardize this eye biomarkers information and construct the eye biomarker database (EBD) to provide ophthalmologists with a platform to search, analyze, and download these eye biomarker data.


In this study, we present the EBD <>, a world-first online compilation comprising 889 biomarkers for 26 ocular diseases and 939 eye biomarkers for 181 systemic diseases. The EBD also includes the information of 78 “nonbiomarkers”—the objects that have been proven cannot be biomarkers. Biological function and network analysis were conducted for these ocular disease biomarkers, and several hub pathways and common network topology characteristics were newly identified, which may promote future ocular disease biomarker discovery and characterizes the landscape of biomarkers for eye diseases at the pathway and network level. The EBD is expected to yield broader utility among developmental biologists and clinical scientists in and outside of the eye field by assisting in the identification of biomarkers linked to eye disorders and related systemic diseases.

Availability and implementation

EBD is available at

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