Access to large-scale genomics and transcriptomics data from various tissues and cell lines allowed the discovery of wide-spread alternative splicing events and alternative promoter usage in mammalians. Between human and mouse, gene-level orthology is currently present for nearly 16k protein-coding genes spanning a diverse repertoire of over 200k total transcript isoforms.


Here, we describe a novel method, ExTraMapper, which leverages sequence conservation between exons of a pair of organisms and identifies a fine-scale orthology mapping at the exon and then transcript level. ExTraMapper identifies more than 350k exon mappings, as well as 30k transcript mappings between human and mouse using only sequence and gene annotation information. We demonstrate that ExTraMapper identifies a larger number of exon and transcript mappings compared to previous methods. Further, it identifies exon fusions, splits and losses due to splice site mutations, and finds mappings between microexons that are previously missed. By reanalysis of RNA-seq data from 13 matched human and mouse tissues, we show that ExTraMapper improves the correlation of transcript-specific expression levels suggesting a more accurate mapping of human and mouse transcripts. We also applied the method to detect conserved exon and transcript pairs between human and rhesus macaque genomes to highlight the point that ExTraMapper is applicable to any pair of organisms that have orthologous gene pairs.

Availability and implementation

The source code and the results are available at and

Supplementary information

Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

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