Antibodies play an important role in clinical research and biotechnology, with their specificity determined by the interaction with the antigen’s epitope region, as a special type of protein–protein interaction (PPI) interface. The ubiquitous availability of sequence data, allows us to predict epitopes from sequence in order to focus time-consuming wet-lab experiments toward the most promising epitope regions. Here, we extend our previously developed sequence-based predictors for homodimer and heterodimer PPI interfaces to predict epitope residues that have the potential to bind an antibody.


We collected and curated a high quality epitope dataset from the SAbDab database. Our generic PPI heterodimer predictor obtained an AUC-ROC of 0.666 when evaluated on the epitope test set. We then trained a random forest model specifically on the epitope dataset, reaching AUC 0.694. Further training on the combined heterodimer and epitope datasets, improves our final predictor to AUC 0.703 on the epitope test set. This is better than the best state-of-the-art sequence-based epitope predictor BepiPred-2.0. On one solved antibody–antigen structure of the COVID19 virus spike receptor binding domain, our predictor reaches AUC 0.778. We added the SeRenDIP-CE Conformational Epitope predictors to our webserver, which is simple to use and only requires a single antigen sequence as input, which will help make the method immediately applicable in a wide range of biomedical and biomolecular research.

Availability and implementation

Webserver, source code and datasets at

Supplementary information

Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

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