Heterogeneity is a hallmark of many complex human diseases, and unsupervised heterogeneity analysis has been extensively conducted using high-throughput molecular measurements and histopathological imaging features. ‘Classic’ heterogeneity analysis has been based on simple statistics such as mean, variance and correlation. Network-based analysis takes interconnections as well as individual variable properties into consideration and can be more informative. Several Gaussian graphical model (GGM)-based heterogeneity analysis techniques have been developed, but friendly and portable software is still lacking. To facilitate more extensive usage, we develop the R package HeteroGGM, which conducts GGM-based heterogeneity analysis using the advanced penaliztaion techniques, can provide informative summary and graphical presentation, and is efficient and friendly.

Availabilityand implementation

The package is available at

Supplementary information

Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

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