Long-read sequencing technologies can be employed to detect and map DNA modifications at the nucleotide resolution on a genome-wide scale. However, published software packages neglect the integration of genomic annotation and comprehensive filtering when analyzing patterns of modified bases detected using Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) or Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) data. Here, we present DNA Modification Annotation (DNAModAnnot), a R package designed for the global analysis of DNA modification patterns using adapted filtering and visualization tools.


We tested our package using PacBio sequencing data to analyze patterns of the 6-methyladenine (6mA) in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia, in which high 6mA amounts were previously reported. We found P. tetraurelia 6mA genome-wide distribution to be similar to other ciliates. We also performed 5-methylcytosine (5mC) analysis in human lymphoblastoid cells using ONT data and confirmed previously known patterns of 5mC. DNAModAnnot provides a toolbox for the genome-wide analysis of different DNA modifications using PacBio and ONT long-read sequencing data.

Availability and implementation

DNAModAnnot is distributed as a R package available via GitHub (

Supplementary information

Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

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